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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  December 10, 2014 6:00pm-7:01pm PST

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captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions >> woodruff: reaction at home and abroad sharpens political divide over the senate report on the c.i.a. interrogation program. we explore the effectiveness of torture. good evening, i'm judy woodruff. >> ifill: and i'm gwen ifill. also ahead this wednesday, as the deadline looms to pass a government funding bill, house republicans propose a budget deal replete with fine print on school lunches, campaign spending, and even marijuana sales. >> woodruff: in michigan, senior citizens move out of nursing homes in favor of more independent living and lower health care costs but those alternatives that use medicaid
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dollars are only open to a select few. >> the only way states avoid paying too much for these programs is they have long waiting lists. in some states waiting lists are two or three years, so chances are very good you will be dead before you get to the top of the list. >> ifill: plus, wildly popular, profanity laced bedtime stories for parents. >> "i'll read you one very last book if you swear you'll go ( bleep ) to sleep." >> woodruff: those are some of the stories we're covering on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: ♪ ♪
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moving our economy for 160 years. bnsf, the engine that connects us. >> thanks for my first car. thanks for giving me your smile, your motivation, and your belief that loved ones always come first. we wouldn't be where we are if it were not for the people that helped get us here. don't forget to thank those who helped you to take charge of your future and got you where you are today. the boss of your life. the chief life officer. lincoln financial. you're in charge. >> supported by the john d. and catherine t. macarthur foundation. committed to building a more just, verdant and peaceful world. more information at >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions
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and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> ifill: the plunging price of oil fell toward new five-year lows today with no end in sight. it came as the energy department reported higher u.s. stockpiles and opec projectedrply lower demand. in new york, oil dropped nearly five percent to just under $61 a barrel. that's a 17% drop in just two weeks. >> woodruff: the oil sell-off dragged down energy stocks and sent the rest of wall street sharply lower. the dow jones industrial average lost 268 points to close at 17,533; the nasdaq fell 82
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points to close at 4,684; and the s&p 500 shed 33, to finish at 2,026. >> ifill: the city of detroit will officially emerge from the largest municipal bankruptcy in american history, at midnight. michigan governor rick snyder announced it today, now that a federal judge has approved plans to shed $7 billion of the city's $18 billion in debt. >> this has been an extremely difficult and hard process for many people. but people worked together, and i think we've got an outstanding outcome, far better than people's expectations. and now most importantly, we have the city poised for a new chapter, a new chapter that's about the growth of the city of detroit. >> ifill: the state, foundations, and the detroit institute of art have pitched in to ease pension cuts and protect the city's art collection from sale. >> woodruff: in brazil, a national truth commission today issued a sweeping report on torture and other abuses during a long military dictatorship.
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the brazilian commission detailed systematic torture and hundreds of killings and disappearances between 1964 and 1985. it also called for revoking an amnesty and prosecuting those responsible. >> ifill: tensions have flared anew between israel and the palestinian authority, with the death of a palestinian cabinet official. ziad abu ayn died today after a confrontation in the west bank. video showed an israeli border policeman grabbing ayn and shoving him back. minutes later, he collapsed, clutching his chest. he died en route to a hospital. >> woodruff: the u.n.'s refugee agency is urging governments worldwide to help refugees who brave the open seas, so-called boat people. the agency reported today that: a record 348,000 people sailed in rickety, crowded vessels this year, to reach safe shores. more than 200,000 of them arrived in europe, after leaving the middle east and north africa.
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but overall, nearly 4,300 people have died in the risky sea crossings. >> ifill: this was awards day for the recipients of the 2014 nobel peace prize. pakistani teenager malala yousafzai, the youngest nobel laureate ever, accepted the honor in oslo, norway. richard pallot of independent television news reports. malala, please comeed for. ( applause ) >> reporter: she has achieved what some of the greatest statesmen and women spend their lifetime striving for. like for most teenaged triumphs mom and dad came along, too. their daughter was not getting a school prize but the nobel peace one. ( cheers and applause ) >> this award is not just for me. it is for those forgotten children who want education. it is for those frightened
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children who want peace. >> reporter: it is a little over two years since the taliban shot malala in the head for championing girls' rights to education. but that brutality has, ironically, opened the door to young females here. students talk of how both sexes are now taught alongside one another, =ly, fairly, more safely. as for malawla, well, she's now at school in. >> i'm the first recipient of the nobel peace price who still fights with her younger brothers. ( laughter ) >> reporter: so it seems the only place she doesn't bring peace is at home. >> ifill: yousafzai shared the award with indian child rights activist kailash satyarthi. >> woodruff: back in this
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country, national football league owners have approved a new personal conduct policy. the n.f.l. has come under fire in recent months for its handling of domestic violence incidents involving professional players. the changes include a more extensive list of banned conduct and hiring a special counsel for investigations. league commissioner roger goodell. >> the policy is comprehensive, it is strong, it is tough and it is better for everyone associated with the n.f.l. i have stated it many times, being a part of the n.f.l. is a privilege, it is not a right. >> woodruff: the changes, which take effect immediately, also include a new conduct committee charged with reviewing policies at least annually. >> the federal aviation administration granted permission today for four companies to use drones in surveillance, construction site monitoring, and oil rig
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inspections. that makes 13 u.s. companies with permits so far. >> woodruff: still to come on the newshour. debating the effectiveness of torture. what's in and what's out in the congressional spending deal. how the u.s. and iraq can work together to defeat the islamic state group. michigan senior citizens move out of nursing homes in order to lower health care costs. the human toll of producing jewelry made out of jade. and, profane bedtime stories popular with parents. >> ifill: now, the fallout from the senate intelligence committee's report charging torture and deceit at the c.i.a. the interrogations described in the senate report spanned the globe from guantanamo bay, cuba, to afghanistan. criticism came from around the
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world today as well. the new afghan president, ashraf ghani, spoke in kabul. >> the report is shocking. all accepted principles, human rights, the united states constitution, and all accepted international norms, have been violated by c.i.a. agents and their contractors. >> ifill: in iran, a twitter account linked to supreme leader ayatollah khamanei said americans have been "debased and misguided" by their government. china also took the chance to shift the focus to american actions and away from accusations that beijing routinely tortures political opponents. >> ( translated ): china opposes torture. we think the u.s. should reflect and correct their actions. the u.s. should abide to international conventions and regulations. >> ifill: white house press secretary josh earnest conceded the u.s. will have to work to rebuild its moral authority. >> the release of this report is critically important step because it demonstrates a commitment to transparency, it demonstrates a commitment to accountability in terms of
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confessing up for falling short, and it also demonstrates a commitment to making sure these kinds of short comings don't happen again. >> ifill: countries that once hosted secret c.i.a. prisons also felt the fallout including poland, where a former president insisted he never knew any particulars. >> ( translated ): the american side turned to the polish side with a request to find a quiet place where it could conduct operations to effectively obtain information from persons who were willing to cooperate with the u.s. side. we agreed to this. >> ifill: in lithuania, the prime minister pressed for information on whether detainees were tortured at a site near vilnius. the united nations special counter-terror investigator said the interrogators themselves should be prosecuted. and u.s. senator mark udall, the outgoing democratic senator from colorado, demanded high-ranking c.i.a. officials be fired. >> it's bad enough not to prosecute these officials, but to reward or promote them and
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risk the integrity of the u.s. government to protect them is incomprehensible. the president needs to purge his administration of high level officials who were instrumental to the development and running of this program. he needs to force cultural change at c.i.a. >> ifill: but former c.i.a. director michael hayden pushed back, here this morning nbc's "today show." >> i don't know that the report that was released yesterday is that historically accurate. it reads like a prosecutorial screed rather than a historical document. >> ifill: meanwhile, six american embassies around the world stepped up security, in case of possible attacks. >> ifill: so does torture work? do detainees who undergo harsh interrogations talk? to help us answer that, i'm joined now by bill harlow, he was c.i.a. spokesman from tktk. and, david iglesias, a former u.s. attorney and senior prosecutor of a guantanamo detainee.
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bill harlow, aside from these moral and legal questions, what's the answer to the question? is it useful? was it effective to use torture? >> to start with you, would disagree with the term "torture." the enhanced interrogation program we utilizeed on a hand full of top terrorists, absolutely, beyond any doubt, produced vital intelligence that helped keep america safe. >> ifill: give me an example? >> osama bin laden. the report would lead you to believe there wasn't much information that came out of detain subjected to enhanced interrogation that led to him. that is just wrong. there were detainees subjected to e.i.t.-- enhanced interrogation-- that provided vital information. one provided a little bit of information before e.i.t.s. afterwards, he gave us great detailed information that told us for the first time that a particular person was carrying messages to bin laden outside of
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afghanistan. this we are not heard before. the other detainee told us even more information about letters that this person had been carrying back and forth do bin laden. suddenly, we had information which told us that this person, above all others, needed to be focused on, and years of hard work after that led to abad ban. >> david iglesias, does it work, and did it work in this case of osama bin laden? >> no it, doesn't work. the broadband e.i.t.s-- a euphemism for torture-- is it doesn't work pup always want to get a voluntary statement with reliable information, and in every case that the senate committee looked at, the actual evidence used came from non-abusive interrogation tactics. so as a former war crimes prosecutor, i can tell you, it's radioactive, and more importantly, from a real politic point of view, it just doesn't work. >> ifill: could the same information, bill harlow, been elicited without the e.i.t.s. >> no, it couldn't.
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and in fact what you just heard there is what the majority report tells you. what i haven't heard anybody say in the reporting on this network and recallings is whether they read the minority report which rebuts much of what was said in the feinstein committee report. the information was very available. it was information which was not available. and the other thing that's missing is the context of the time. we didn't have time to wait around and see if we might eventually find out this information. this was a period when we were under great threat for a second attack on the united states. we had a hand full of people howe knew were responsible for the first attack and would very likely be able to tell us how to stop the next one. we couldn't afford to wait. we didn't. and we were successful. >> ifill: david iglesias, that's an argument that's been made, especially in the last 24 hours. this is about timing, including the khalid shake mohammed case as well, we had to get the information however we needed to get it in order to protect americans. >> well, there was no ticking timebomb. that's a justification people have been using that because another attack was imminent, we
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had to resort to this. but if you look at the majority report, you look at the interrogation of abu zah bayda, he actually us the name of muktar, khalid sheikh mohammed, and that was done through a traditional model of interrogation. it wasn't derived from abusive interrogation techniques, so i respectfully glint from that. >> he gave us that bit of information while he was being medically treated and when he became healthy again he clammed up and stopped traelg us information. and only because he stopped telling us information, and that timebomb was still ticking, did we escalate to other tactics and he gave us much more information, much, much more information than that one nugget after he was subject to e.i.t.s. >> ifill: david iglesias, is it possible that enhanced ipterigation, to use the term of art, is something that is useful to elicit information, dean
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information from people deeply committed to not cooperating? >> no, it's a ruse. the term "enhanced interrogation technique" say ruse. you always want to get accurate information. you want actionable intelligence, and you do that by getting a voluntary statement. look, i can get somebody to admit to being the second shoot nert j.f.k. shooting in i use the right techniques, but that's a worthless confession. we want something that's usable in court and usable to prevent future attacks, and the position of the majority, which i agree with, is by using traditional interrogations. >> ifill: how do you know the difference between if it's not corroborated elsewhere how do you know the difference between good information and bad information gleend using these tactics? >> what we just said was there was an example of misinformation about how this works. this-- e.i.t.s were applied for just a few days or weeks elderly in their tenure.
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for years later, abu zah bade a.c.a. lead sheikh mohammed, provided us lots and lots of information, which we could validate. they gave us names. they gave us locations. they gave us phone numbers of terrorists. we knew a lot of what they were giving us was valid information. it wasn't in order to stop the pain. the pain had stopped years, months before. they were telling us stuff which we could validate, and we knew a lot of answers before we asked the question so we knew when they were telling us the truth and when they weren't. with your respect, his focus as a prosecutor, he wants to get a prosecution, a conviction. that's a wonderful thing. our focus was to stop the next attack. and that's what we did. >> ifill: did the process get in the way of getting the best information, david iglesias? >> the process worked fine had we stuck to the traditional use of f.b.i. techniques which is the gold standard. you sit them down. you make them comfortable. you establish rapport and then they will give you information. it's when you resort to torture
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or abusive interrogation, that's when you start getting information that typically is not helpful. >> ifill: if abusive interrogation, bill harlow, is useful, and the administration is to be believed they've stopped using it, they've stopped doing it, what are we missing? what don't we someone what danger are we in because of not using that now? >> well, we don't really know what we're missing. this administration has said they don't want to dirty their hands with this kind of interrogation. they use croab drones to kill suspected terrorists. we were interrogating known terrorists to stop the next attack. they're going after suspected terrorists, killing them, and those who happen to be near them, and while that may be preferable for some moral reason, we lose any possible intelligence you might collect from what's in that person's mind, in their pockets on their computer, because they've been obliterated by a hellfire missile. >> ifill: he used the term "dirtying hands" david iglesias.
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has the administration risked american lives by wanting to be more hands off in its pursuit of terrorists instead of doing what he says works? >> well, it's preferable to have-- to get human intelligence, and you do that through questioning, and the point that i've been trying to make, is the most reliable information you get is through noncoercive techniques, and we have been using this in law enforcement for decades. the military's been using humane treatment since world war ii. and there's nothing new about human nature. so, no, i-- i believe we need to stick to the gold standard in all attackers. >> ifill: david iglesias, bill harlow, thank you both very much. >> thank you. >> ifill: a top kurdish leader was in washington today to meet
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>> woodruff: one day before the u.s. government faces another shutdown. republicans in congress insist they will get a funding bill passed in time. our political reporter and editor, lisa desjardins looks at what the trillion dollar deal says about republican priorities and why it faces potential problems on both the right and the left. >> reporter: in the u.s. capitol, the day started with seeming confidence. >> tomorrow we'll pass a responsible bill that keeps the government running. >> reporter: republican house speaker john boener announced a deal just one day before the federal government faces a possible shut down. now there's a change this time. the republican-written bill has no sign of past shutdown flashpoints, not the healthcare law, not the national debt. instead republicans are flexing their muscles this time around by filling this bill with other victories. oklahoma congressman tom coles. >> i think we will have a very big vote on our side. and frankly there may well be some democratic votes, i would expect there will be. remember this is a negotiated product with a democratic senate. >> reporter: the deal funds just over $1 trillion in spending.
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it keeps in place another round of automatic budget cuts or sequester. also, this bill separates out the department of homeland security, funding the agency only through february, and thereby teeing up a bigger fight next year over president obama's immigration policy. and that's problem one some conservatives like mo brooks of alabama want action now. he's a no on the deal. >> i think that you could safely say that there are dozens of republicans that share my view, whether its a majority i can't say. i don't know. so the right is not happy. > we have to stand up and say no. >> reporter: and neither is the left, massachusetts senator elizabeth warren railed against the deal today. because it will loosen some key restrictions on wall-street, rules put in place by the dodd- frank act. >> we want every single person in the house of representatives to stop and think "do i want to vote for something that is reckless?
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that puts our economy in danger? and who does it help?" it helps a handful of the largest financial institutions in this country. make no mistake, this is about money. >> reporter: those are the greatest issues for democrats but republicans also tucked some other items they like the fine print. for one, school lunches, this deal would delay nutrition rules hitting a pet cause for first lady michelle obama. and fishing tackle-- the budget deal means no regulation on lead in fishing tackle or in ammunition. republicans also wrote-in greater budget cuts for the i.r.s. and environmental protection agency. the bill would block all funds for washington d.c. to legalize marijuana. and one of biggest items affects voting, the bill would dramatically raise the limits for how much money congressional candidates can raise from any individual. >> woodruff: and lisa joins me now. lisa, this time last night, approximately, we thought there was going to be a deal. >> right.
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>> woodruff: but is it unraveling? where do things stands? >> "unraveling "is too strongave word. there is major push back from deems. they are trying to get as much leverage before the government shutdown. that's house democrats. and we saw elizabeth warren very angry about the finance campaign changes. and and i just got off the phone with some senate democratic leadership sources, they sound like they want it to go through. time will tell. the next 12 hours, obviously, critical, because as a lot of our viewers know, congress really only praits these days on a deadline, unfortunately. >> woodruff: there is clearly division among both parties, but the democrats as you were showing. you have liberal senator elizabeth warren from massachusetts, somebody who has made a career out of talking about consumer rights, who was saying that this idea of easing financial regulations is going to hurt everybody. >> and let's talk about what
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we're talking about here, because a lot of our viewers will remember credit default swaps, the phrase probably we never wanted to utter again from the recession. this change that is in this bill deals with those credit default swaps. those are called derivatives. and this change would allow banks that trade in those driffatives, those risky trades, it would allow them to take those risks and get federal government backup. democrats say it allows the banks to take the risks and the taxpayers would be on the hook-- to some extent, not fully, but to some except, for the risk. republicans say this is good business and banks right now are clogged up. the regulations are harming the banks. >> woodruff: you have some democrats concerned basically opening wide open the campaign finance rule saying it's what, possible, for a person to give to a political party 10 times as much money as they can now. >> right, incredible. we're talking about a spending bill here, and all of a sudden, campaign finance is the
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conversation. the american people haven't been able to debate this, and hasn't been debated on the floor of either chamber, but yet here it is in this bill. what that change would do would essentially allow national political parties to get political fund raising in three different accounts. right now they're limited to just over $60,000 from individuals. but now they can get that money from individuals in three different accounts and then they can funnel some of that money to candidates in local races. so it's really sort of opening a new portal for money to go in larger denominations to local candidates. >> woodruff: but originally, the democratic leadership agreed to all this. >> yeah. >> woodruff: so what's going on here? >> again, democratic leadership is in a tough spot right now, but they're feisty on the phone with me, talking to my sources. they say if democrats who haven't been part of the negotiations, saw what mitch mcconnell wanted in this deal, the way he wanted to, in their words, undermine dodd-frank, they would be very happy with what they get. they say there were seven
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different items he wanted to use to attack and undermine dodd-frank. also, consumer protections, and they said they knocked six out. they say that's a good record, but some like elizabeth warren say, no, we can't stand for any of this. >> woodruff: meanwhile, if this happens, it's clearly republicans flexing their muscles, taking a cut out of e.p.a., the environmental agency, the i.r.s., in effect slapping the wrist of democrats in a number of areas. >> that's right, and that's the funny dynamics, too. the republican party, they all were hoping to go home, republican leadership, and say, hey, look what we got you. look at these things. this is just the beginning. look at what's ahead. they wanted to show that they can govern to the american people, but instead on this night before a deadline, there are still complications. it's still not entirely clear they have the votes. and, judy, here's what's important to our viewers who are thinking, will there be a shutdown? it's telling they top republican source of mine in in house leadership told me they have a backup plan. if they cannot get the the votes for this deal, they're ready to push through a short-term bill
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through january, not their favorite, wouldn't show they can govern the way they want, but their party is complicated right now and split. >> woodruff: government at its most efficient. >> or not. >> woodruff: lisa desjardins, thank you. >> got it. >> ifill: a top kurdish leader was in washington today to meet with congressional leaders and shore up support for the fight against the islamic state in iraq. qubad talibani is the kurdish deputy prime minister, newshour seniour foreign affair correspondent margaret warner met with him earlier today. >> warner: talabani's visit comes as kurdish peshmerga fighters, iraqi government forces and shiite militias battle to roll back islamic state gains. the militants moved into northern and western iraq in june, sending iraqi troops fleeing. in august, u.s. warplanes joined
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the fray, targeting islamic state units. yesterday, on a visit by defense secretary chuck hagel, iraq's new prime minister haider al- abadi asked for more u.s. airpower and weapons. but hagel warned that u.s. firepower is not the solution. >> as iraqi leaders and the people of iraq know, only they can bring lasting peace to their country. >> warner: baghdad did take a step to reconcile with the alienated kurds last week with a deal to share the country's oil revenues between them. meanwhile, the u.s. is deploying 3,000 trainers and advisers to iraqi forces and may join them in the field. if and when they try to recapture the northern city of mosul. i spoke today with deputy prime minister talabani in washington, where he's urging u.s. leaders to remain engaged in iraq. deputy prime minister talabani, thank you for joining us. >> my pleasure. >> warner: the u.s. defense secretary chuck hagel is in iraq this week and your prime minister abadi told him yesterday that iraq needs more
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heavy weapons from the united states. do you agree with him on that? >> i think iraq and including the kurdish forces, the peshmerga, do require heavier weapons to fight this fight and to be victorious in this fight, but we also need to understand that this fight against isil and against these terrorists is not just a military fight. >> warner: well, secretary hagel said his response to the prime minister was to say we gave you lots of weapons last time and it didn't work. so is he right? >> he is right. and again it shows that isil filled the political vacuum in iraq and not a security vacuum. iraq didn't lack weapons, it lacked was a political cohesion as a country. which ultimately created this, this groundwork for isil to come in and take over big part of the country. >> warner: the united states finally got involved in this fight in really august. how is that fight going now?
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>> the fight has certainly changed from it looked like in august with the u.s. airstrikes and the coalition strength it had turned the tide of the conflict. it had changed isil's tactics, it has forced them to change their tactics. they have been forced underground. but we are expecting this conflict to go on for a considerable amount of time longer. >> warner: now, of course, one of the largest cities they took was the city of mosul. government is pushing in fact to mount an offensive to retake mosul much sooner than the americans think is feasible. what is your view on that? >> it's not going to be an easy operation. moz sula very big city. the challenge is there is acquiescence to some of the isil's elements, from certain sunni groups and tribes. so that means there is a political issue here that has to be addressed for any military operation to be successful and sustainable. >> warner: kurdish poorg fighters, who have been quite effective in their areas of operation, would you take part in a fight to retake mosul?
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>> we currently have eight fronts against isil now, and as you said, we have been effective in holding on to our territory, propelling isil attacks and actually now we are on the front foot in our fight against isil with u.s. support. increase level of support and coordination from the u.s. and also with the iraqi side. >> warner: but is your answer really no? that the kurdish peshmerga are reluctance to even get into that. that's a very mixed city as we know. sunni, shia, christian and kurd. >> it's a very mixed city, it's a very big city and it's also going to require a very bloody battle to liberate it. and again without any sort of political endgame in sight for what the future of iraq is going to look like. how we're going to eliminate that mentality of that population that is supportive to isil. i think any military operation is going to not be sustainable. >> warner: you've been deeply involved in the negotiations in baghdad with the government and this new prime minister, haider al-abadi, is he different from maliki, his predecessor? how is he doing in terms of reaching out to the disaffected groups, both the kurds and the sunnis?
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>> in his very short tenure, he's been able to reach an agreement with us. there's been some progress on the oil issues, there's been some progress on the budget issues. these are limited progress, but it is progress. and it's progress that iraq has not had for eight years now. we find him to be a pragmatic and practical person, and i feel that seems to be stalled. what's the problem there? >> warner: if the sunnis aren't brought into the fold and aren't willing to be participants in the fight, including physically, against i.s., isn't the u.s. prospect for driving i.s. out of iraq doomed? it's very limited because without taking away the support that this group is getting from
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the local population, any military operation is going to be fraught with enormous difficulties. that atmosphere has to change. that mindset from baghdad has to change. there has to be a greater effort to win over the people of those territories where isil are currently occupying. >> warner: spriept mied biden in a speech last night said in the case of iraq, i said nearly a decade ago and i was criticized for it and still believe it that the answer for iraq is a very loose federal system of three different entities. >> that's the only solution for iraq. and we wish that people had listened to the vice president when he presented this when he was still a senator. i think iraq does have one last chance to make this country work in a new way, not in the old centralized awe that areitarian ways, but every day, every week that chance is diminishing. >> warner: deputy prime minister qubad talabani, thank you. >> thank you.
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>> woodruff: next, an effort in michigan to permit frail senior citizens and adults with physical disabilities to remain living in their homes with the help of supportive services. it's being done through a special medicaid waiver available in all fifty states. about 800,000 people around the country are now in similar programs. the newshour's cat wise has our report. >> reporter: making a pot of coffee is a morning ritual 77- year-old dorothy sites relishes. but until just a few months ago, sites didn't have a coffee pot, or her own kitchen. that is because she was living in a nursing home after suffering a stroke four years ago. >> in the nursing home you never got out of your chair unless it was to bathe or go to the bathroom. here i can ask for privacy and get it.
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>> reporter: the here she is talking about is a one bedroom, one bath apartment in the american house assisted living facility outside detroit, michigan. sites moved in with the help of a state program called m.i.- choice, thats m.i. for michigan. its funded through a special federal medicaid waiver that's offered in all 50 states though benefits vary from state to state. traditionally, most medicaid long-term care dollars have gone to nursing homes. but states are increasingly using waiver programs to provide supportive services for frail, low-income seniors and younger adults with disabilities who prefer more home-like settings. >> hi dorothy, good morning. it's your cleaning day. >> reporter: sites now gets weekly housekeeping and laundry services, and daily help with personal care, medication reminders, and meals as part of the 18 home services offered to m.i. choice participants. she herself pays for utilities and a subsidized rate for rent.
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>> how's your coffee? >> reporter: sites daughter, lynn bullock, says despite being initially skeptical that her mom could live on her own again, she's pleased with how its gone so far. >> at first i thought maybe it would be difficult, but as she is been here she is actually doing better because her mood is better. >> reporter: michigan's waiver program, which has been around for more than two decades, serves about 14,000 mostly seniors. in recent years, michigan has been making a big push to reduce the number of those living in nursing homes many seniors want out, and the state wants to save money. >> do you think you will want to stay or do you think you'd like to move on to a less restrictive setting? probably move on. >> reporter: according to state figures, michigan's medicaid nursing home care costs about $180 a day, compared to about $75 a day for m.i. choice recipients. >> we have transitioned over 10,000 people from a nursing
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home back to the community. >> reporter: mary ablan heads up an association of michigan non- profits that administer m.i. choice. she says one of the goals of the program is to let participants and their families make decisions about the services they want. this approach, which is gaining traction around the country, is called person-centered care. and in michigan, the key to that effort are liaisons called care coordinators. >> they're the nurses and social workers that are working with participants and working with the family members to make sure that the participant gets what he or she needs but it even goes beyond that to making sure they have a life. that's another element of person centered care is, not just meeting peoples physical needs, but to make sure that they're living the life that they want to live. >> reporter: one of those care coordinators on the frontlines is deb shtulman who manages services for 45 m.i. choice recipients in detroit's
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northwestern suburbs. >> hi deb! good to see you. how are you? >> reporter: on a recent afternoon, shtulman visited the home of charlene gordon who has been taking care of her mom, lucille morris, for about ten years with the help of services provided by m.i. choice. morris, who is 78, had a stroke more than twenty years ago when she was founder and ceo of a company that made parts for detroit car makers. today, morris is getting 43 hours a week of care from health aides. during her visits, shtulman tries to gauge if morris is getting the care she wants. >> is charlene preparing meals for you? and you're helping too right? >> yes. >> reporter: while shtulman aims to provide the care that her clients wants, she also must juggle funding limitations. >> these are medicaid dollars that were spending and we try and help families think of creative ways that they might be able to meet a need, rather than us giving them more hours. >> reporter: studies show that
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most seniors want to remain in their homes as they age, but home care is not a medicaid entitlement, and waiver programs are not funded enough to offer around-the-clock, intensive care that some need in later years. that can be a problem says howard gleckman, a senior fellow at the urban institute. >> states can create these programs, they can look good on paper, but maybe it provides only two of three hours of home care a day and for many people that may just not be enough. >> reporter: gleckman also says the states are limited in the numbers who can be served. >> the other way states avoid paying too much for these programs is they have long waiting lists in some states waiting lists are two or three years. so chances are very good you're going to be dead before you get to the top of the list. >> reporter: in fact in michigan, about 4,500 individuals are currently on the m.i. choice waiting list. including the 90-year-old mother of joan barrett, a high school chemistry teacher in troy. >> this is a picture board we did for my moms 90th birthday.
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>> reporter: barrett's mom, also named joan barrett, has been on the waiting list for eight months. she currently pays $5,000 a month for an assisted living apartment, but barrett says her moms savings are about to run out, and she and her seven siblings are concerned they'll have to move her to a nursing home early next year, unless she gets accepted into m.i. choice. >> i get very discouraged and very concerned. we've tried to figure out how we can keep her at the place she's at. my one sister is taking money out of her 401k in order to try to stretch her time a little bit longer. >> reporter: earlier this year, michigan's governor, rick snyder pushed the state legislature to pass $25 million in new funding for m.i. choice. advocates are hopeful that means an additional 1,800 people on the waitlist could be enrolled over the next year. cat wise for the pbs newshour in michigan.
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>> ifill: the precious stone jade has long been seen in china as a sign of luck and prestige. but the most coveted type of jade comes from myanmar also known as burma where it is often pulled from the ground by heroin addicted miners surviving in desperate conditions hari sreenivasan has this report produced in partnership with the new york times. >> jade lies close to the surface and the rolling hills for northern myanmar near the chinese border. foreigners aren't permitted anywhere near this area. raw, it looks like many other stones, but cut and polished its trademark huesses turns bright. large-scale mining concession have ties to the burmese government. smaller scale operations like this are mind with hand tools.
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dozens of miners interviewed for the "new york times" said the operations they worked were for illegally funded by chinese businessmen. >> ( translated ): i began using drugs because of pressure from my friends. my friends said drugs were good to relieve the pain of the hard work, and the job i did was very hard. >> reporter: workers queued up to buy drugs from the mine. >> miners here believe the drugs let them work longer without stopping. before he got hiv, narking would work around the clock, working caiz without sleep. he was paid $1 an hour. dealers set up shops next to or on mining sites like this, where users are free to sell, buy, and use heroin. they claim the police and military take bribes and allow the market to run without interference of the law. what looks like piles of trash
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are in fact piles of needles. >> ( translated ): it's even easier to buy drugs than buying cigarettes in a shop. it's like a store selling noodles or bread." >> reporter: heroin is illegal in myanmar, but its rampant use and lack of drug enforcement in the mine, has led many to believe the central government is encouraging the scourge as a weapon against their people. >> ( translated ): the number of drug users has significantly increased because the people are the targeted victims of drugs. >> this former addict runs rehab clinics in the state capital. he tries to help miners hooked on heroin. sadly, he believes his success rate is lower than 5%. >> ( translated ): you can say it's an opium war as they are using heroin as a tool for ethnic cleansing. >> ( translated ): you can see
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that there are many youth in prison, some of are in prison, and some are dead. and the living ones are going to die through addiction. >> sreenivasan: joining me is dan levin who wrote the article for the "new york times." how long has this problem been going on and what made it so bad? >> heroin addiction in myanmar certainly goes back at least two decades when the jade trade really picked up as eye result of an increase in demand from china's growing middle class. and while opium has been a serious issue in myanmar, it was only about 20 years ago that you really started to see heroin flow into northern myanmar, and into the arms of a lot of these miners. >> sreenivasan: you know, as we saw one of the social workers in the piece said this is a tool that can destroy an entire population, more powerful than, say, bullets that might kill a single individual. how rampant is the problem in this young population of miners?
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>> it's a very serious and widespread problem. if you talk to health professionals and international rights groups that have done a lot of work there this region, they really describe it as a humanitarian crisis. when you talk to miners, they say that pretty much four out of five-- basically everybody that they know in the mines is using heroin and sharing needles often. >> sreenivasan: it was jarring to see those mountain of needles that heroin addicts have been using. is there an why where the drugs are coming from to get bothe country? >> among locals and international organizations that are studying this problem, trade are a sense that these drugs are actually being made elsewhere in myanmar. the theory is that these are local militias who are seen to be protected by powers that be and are bringing these drugs into the mines where there is a ready and willing addicted population who can pay for the drugs. what's clear is that there are
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checkpoints around the mines. so in order to get in, someone has to be look, the other way because you have jade flowing out and drugs flowing in. >> sreenivasan: besides the demand that the chinese middle class-- or let's say the population all over the globe-- are creating. there are a couple of point in your story where you say perhaps the chinese have deeper involvement, that they're actually part of the infrastructure and own some of these mining camps. what sort of evidence supports that? >> we have spoken to several people who are in the mining industry in myanmar, as well as miners and chinese businesspeople who talk about how chinese business interests are deeply involved, both in buying the gems at the mines as well as providing financing. no one really knows who is involved in the mines, who is operating the mines, and this is an issue that has been brought to the myanmar government, asking for more transparency of just exactly what's happening there.
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and so far, they really have not been that forthcoming. and this is an issue because as myanmar looks ahead and tries to rebrand itself as a democratic, more open country, jade is a very lucrative industry that is known to be very corrupt, and in order to really know who's at play here, the government really has to open up the minds and the records of records of who is operating them. >> sreenivasan: all right, dan levin of the "new york times," thanks so much. >> thank you. >> woodruff: finally tonight, a hit bedtime book that's not meant for children. jeffrey brown has the story. and an advance note: it contains profane language we have bleeped out. >> the bunnies are munching on carrots, the lambs nibble
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grasses and bleat. i know you're too hungry to reason with but you have to ( bleep ) eat. >> reporter: but it ends with a word we can't use on the air. >> oh, now you're hungry. >> reporter: it's the voice of bryan cranston, of "breaking bad" fame. >> the sunrise is golden and lovely. the birds chirp and twitter and tweet. you woke me and asked for some breakfast. so why the ( bleep ) won't you eat? >> mansbach was known as the author of several critically acclaimed novels, until a little diddy he published in 2012 titled "go the blank to sleep" became a surprise, huge bestseller. the audio version that time was by the master of profanities, samuel l. jackson. >> i'll read you one very last book if you swear you'll go the ( bleep ) to sleep. >> brown: mansbach joined us
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recently in his old neighborhood of brooklyn, new york. he now lives in berkly, california, with his six-year-old daughter, vivian, in many ways the instigator of all this. so there you were, you had written several novels and making a name for yourself in that world, and what happened? >> what happened is my daughter turned two and a half-- >> brown: and that was it. >> that was it, yeah. i made a joke about writing a book called "go the sleep" and as i made the joke it occurred to me that i knew how to write that book how that book will play off the existing canon of bedtime literature and the monologue of an dimes, children's rhymes. >> brown: but it is not intended to be read to children? >> no, it's not. like most things with the "f" word in the title it is not meant for children. >> brown: what is it? a parenting book? for parents to have a release va laugh? how do you see it?
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>> i think it's about having a laugh and some katharthsis, and realizing you're not alone, to know other parents feel the same way and are thinking the same words and it doesn't make you a bad parent i think was really important for a lot of people. >> brown: the criticism of sort of contributing to a vulgarity of the culture, right? >> sure. >> brown: there is that, sort of putting profanity into the children's literature. >> right, well, yeah, that was a criticism criticism first of all, i'd like to point out, it is not children's literature. what you ultimately have to accuse me of, if anything, is injecting profanity into the realm of adult literature. if you throoek history of lullabies, even, this is a pretty safe and gentle one by the standards set, you know-- "rockabye baby" is a terrifying book. i would never read that to a child. i don't suggest you read these to a kid but i think they would be far less jarring than
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anything hans christian andersen wrote. >> brown: you are picking topics for parents. >> it had possibly sort of more nuances to it than the sleep battle, which takes place in that one room. the eating battle takes place over the course of the day in many locations. in a sense, there are more scenes and lends itself to a book that is a little more diverse air, little easier to write in some ways, because there are these moments throughout the day that you engage in this battle. >> brown: how much of this is based on your own experience? >> the sleep book is entirely based on my own experience because that was a big problem for my daughter. >> brown: you feel it? >> yes, it was very genuine, and written with no filters and no expectations so it just came right out. the eating book is based on personal experience, but mostly these are things i've experienced occasionally with my daughter. it's not like the same kind of consistency, the pitch of that
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battle is not the same. she's done all those things but she's done them occasionally or serially. >> brown: are you surpriseed by what happened? >> yeah, i'm flabbergasted. i remember very distinctly being totally tickled that the book was even going to be published by a small mouse housein brooklyn. that in itself felt insane to me. sosee the book take off and do what it's done. >> brown: it's a little different than writing novels. >> very different. >> brown: in terms of attention, sales. >> attention, sales, money per word, all these things. >> brown: what do you tell your kids, by the way? what do you tell your daughters? does she know about the books? >> she knows all about the books. particularly the second book. a lot of the kids in the book are friends of hers. she's on the cover of the book and on several pages. she's intrigued with the notion of fame, particularly her own fame, which has no effect of her life but she's cognizant of the fact that a lot of people have seen these books. the most unimpressive job in the world to a kid is writer.
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like, if you tell a kid you're a writer, you write books they look at you like, "i write books. i wrote three books this week." but it's sort of finally dawning on my daughter that writer might be a real job. >> brown: all right, adam mansbach, thanks so much. >> thank you. >> ifill: again, the major developments of the day, oil prices kept falling, to below $61 dollars a barrel in new york. that dragged down energy stocks and sent the dow jones industrials sharply lower by nearly 270 points. and governments around the world condemned brutal interrogations by the c.i.a., laid bare in a senate report. but current and former agency leaders rejected the findings. >> woodruff: on the newshour online right now, what was once considered an experimental procedure, egg freezing, has become a serious option for women of child-bearing age hoping to postpone pregnancy,
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stall their biological clock. but just how successful, and how invasive, is the procedure? experts weigh in on the details, including the cost, of freezing and storing eggs. that's on our home page. all that and more is on our web site, >> ifill: and that's the newshour for tonight. on thursday, we'll look at how climate change is altering life for indigenous people in peru as scientists from around the world gather in lima. i'm gwen ifill. and i'm judy woodruff. we'll see you on-line and again here tomorrow evening, for all of us here at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your life and become you're own chief life officer.
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>> and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions captioned by media access group at wgbh
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report" with tyler mathisen and susie gharib. funded in part by -- and action alerts plus where jim cramer and fellow portfolio manager stephanie link share their investment strategies, stock picks and market insights. you can learn more at stocks rock. the declines sharp and severe. the dow jones industrial average falls more than 260 points, as catering crews rattles investors. >> the fast and furious selling in the oil marketssent prices at the barrel, lowest since mid 2009. >> whether t's


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